Learning Objectives for the Clinical Year

  1. Professional Communication
    1. Communicate effectively with clients, colleagues, veterinary staff, referring veterinarians, stakeholders, and others to plan, execute, and evaluate treatment and ensure compliance using ancillary aids if necessary.
    2. Understand the needs and preferences of different clients.
    3. Discuss with the client a range of options for treatment and be aware of financial implications of recommendations.
    4. Explain the process of euthanasia and the implications/acceptance of other invasive procedures and provide compassionate care and grief management appropriate to the situation.
    5. Be able to communicate with other team members - particularly technicians, as well as other staff within the practice (treatment directives as an example).
    6. Communicate and respond to information available to the public (internet/ pamphlets).
    7. Communicate recent medical advances with clients.
  2. Complete Medical Records
    1. Maintain records (examination and progress reports, surgical reports, anesthesia records, treatment and diagnostic plans, drug logs, herd consultation reports, etc.) in accordance with minimum standards. Emphasize the importance of why we keep medical records (consequences of a poor health record).
    2. Recognize the confidentiality of records and demonstrates care to protect the client's rights with respect to privacy.​​​​​​​
  3. Animal Welfare and Occupational Health and Safety
    1. Actively contribute to, promote the safety and protection of health and welfare of clients, coworkers, and self, and ensure human safety in animal handling, equipment use and biosafety.
    2. Actively contribute to and promote the welfare and wellness of the patient/herd through education (of client and general public), communication, and animal husbandry.
    3. Use appropriate restraint required to allow performance of physical examination, diagnostic testing and treatment including physical restraint and chemical restraint.​​​​​​​
  4. Life-Long Learning
    1. Critically evaluate the scientific literature to be able to select diagnostic and treatment options for their patients.
    2. Practice evidence-based medicine whenever possible.
    3. Search or review medical records and scientific resources to retrieve information relative to patient management or case review.
    4. Show a desire to learn new technology and systems.
    5. Engage in self-study to improve understanding of cases and management systems to enhance the practice experience. Present this information in rounds.
    6. Recognize the importance of conducting clinical research.
  5. Good Business Practices
    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the business issues related to practice type, including client care, veterinary compensation, utilizing support staff, inventory management, relationships with industry, and service delivery.
  6. Professional Ethics
    1. Work with clients, staff, patients and colleagues with professional courtesy and in accordance with privacy legislation.
    2. Represents the veterinary profession with integrity.
    3. Demonstrates ability to work in a team.
    4. Adheres to regulatory guidelines of professional veterinary associations.
    5. Implementation and understanding of the AVMA ethical standards.
  7. Therapeutics and Health Care Planning
    1. Shows ability in proper drug selection, dose selection and calculation, prescription, and administration routes for treatment of common diseases and conditions for individuals and herds.
    2. Formulate and implement a preventative health program for a variety of animal species of different ages and backgrounds and is able to provide rationale for choices.
    3. Understands appropriate pharmaceutical storage and handling for the commonly used drugs and control drugs in practice.
    4. Knows how to find and apply drug withdrawal times when necessary.
    5. Advise clients in drug administration, handling, and safety (potentials for drug abuse).
  8. Anesthesia and Pain Management
    1. Plan, calculate correct dosing, and administer sedation, local and general anesthesia, and appropriate pain management to allow safe conduct of necessary procedures.
    2. Utilizes available pharmaceuticals to achieve appropriate analgesia in a variety of species and situations.
  9. Surgical Ability
    1. Performs surgical and dental procedures commonly encountered in primary care practice utilizing sterile technique, appropriate tissue handling skill, and post-surgical care.
  10. Activity/Outcome-Based Nutrition
    1. Demonstrates ability to calculate food and water requirements for a variety of species, ages, disease states and production expectations.
    2. Understand the interaction between nutrition and health affecting productivity and animal welfare.
    3. Makes dietary recommendations based on client and animal needs.
  11. Common Disease Knowledge
    1. Demonstrates knowledge of common infectious and zoonotic diseases​​​​​​​
    2. Demonstrates the ability to diagnose, treat and control common health problems including infectious and zoonotic diseases in companion animal species (includes a knowledge of reportable diseases and the appropriate steps to involve the health authorities, and appropriate diagnostics).
    3. Demonstrates biosafety and biosecurity practices in limiting disease transmission between individuals and herds.
    4. Recognizes regulatory issues related to public and animal health.
  12. Evidence-Based Problem-solving
    1. Acquires individual or herd history, perform a physical exam noting all abnormalities, formulate a problem list noting significance of issues and owner needs.
    2. Create a diagnostic plan and perform diagnostic tests in an orderly stepwise fashion. Integrates diagnostic findings and response to therapy with historical and clinical findings in order to confirm the diagnosis and revise the diagnostic plan.
    3. Recognizes personal and practice limitations in providing health care and coordinate referral.​​​​​​​​​​​​​​